However, a unified Royal Norwegian Air Force was only founded as a separate branch of the military of Norway on 10 November 1944; until then it operated in two distinct branches—then known as the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service and the Norwegian Army Air Service. These formations, numbering 12,000 men organised into battalions and with their own pioneers, signals and artillery by VE-day, were equipped with Swedish weapons and equipment and trained by Norwegian and Swedish officers.  In March and April 1940, on the pretext of German aggression, British plans for an invasion of Norway were prepared, mainly in order to reach and destroy the Swedish iron ore mines in Gällivare. By the end of the war, these forces consisted of some 28,000 enlisted men and women. By that time the German offensive in France had progressed to such an extent that the British could no longer afford any commitment in Norway, and the 25,000 Britons and Frenchmen were evacuated from Narvik only 10 days after their victory. As it turned out, most of the plans enabled by the budgetary expansion were not completed in time. :95 Moving east, the Germans were surprised when the British started to abandon Narvik on 3 June.  About 50,000 Norwegians fled to Sweden during the war. The postponement was catastrophic. He secretly records prison life in notes and drawings, smuggled out after his release in '45, which he expands into the narrative, Vi Ventet (We Are Waiting) under his prison name. The German High Command ordered Rendulic to hold the Soviets at bay whilst vital supplies amounting to some 135,000 short tons (122,000 t) could be shipped to safety. While the resistance described is not necessarily what you would normally think of, i.e., military, it was more or less a civilized resistance which most likely saved the Norwegians from the harsh treatment under Hitler’s rule, such as that suffered by France. Ronneberg fled Norway when the Nazis invaded in 1940. Sep 27, 2020 - Things related to the French Army in 1940 or colonial troops as well as French Commandos later on. When the German ambassador to Norway, Curt Bräuer, presented his government's demands to Haakon, the king let it be known he would abdicate before appointing Quisling prime minister. The museum displays equipment, photos and documents from the war years. WW2 Norway. Many were also put on trial. The Norway Resistance Museum (Norges Hjemmefrontmuseum) is dedicated to the country’s national history during World War II. Notable military operations in Norway include: With the beginning of the German withdrawal from Lapland, the initial German plan was to retain the essential nickel mines around Petsamo in the far North held by the 19th Mountain Corps under General Ferdinand Jodl, but events led to the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht ordering the entire 20th Mountain Army out of Finland to take up new defensive positions around Lyngen and Skibotn just to the north of Tromsø—a new operation which came to be called "Operation Nordlicht" (Operation Northern Light). The Norwegian Army therefore planned its campaign as a tactical retreat while awaiting reinforcements from Britain.. Norwegians also learned to use ersatz products for a wide variety of purposes, ranging from fuel to coffee, tea, and tobacco. The powerful battleship Tirpitz was stationed in Norway for most of the war, acting as a fleet in being in her own right and tying up huge Allied resources until she was eventually sunk in the last of many attacks. One notable exception was the sinking of the German heavy cruiser Blücher by the Oscarsborg Fortress at Drøbak sound, which delayed the capture of Oslo long enough for the government to escape the capital. Moreover, many towns and settlements were damaged or destroyed by bombing and fighting. It has been suggested that combating the illegal press expended German resources out of proportion to the illegal media's actual effects. Votes: 1,625 By the end of the war, German occupation had reduced Norway's GDP by 45% – more than any other occupied country. Norway managed to negotiate favourable trade treaties both with the United Kingdom and Germany under these conditions, but it became increasingly clear that both countries had a strategic interest in denying the other warring power access to Norway and its coastline. The British Navy cleared the way to Narvik on 13 April, sinking one submarine and eight destroyers in the fjord. They had been members of the Norwegian national socialist party, Nasjonal Samling, who sympathized and collaborated with the Nazis.Twenty-five of these people were executed for treason. Museum at Akershus Fortress that documents Norway's domestic World War II history from the years 1940-1945. Besides German occupiers, 141,000 foreign nationals were located in Norway, mostly now-liberated prisoners of war held by the Germans. While Northern Norway ultimately fell, efforts there allowed the Norwegian government, including the Norwegian royal family, to escape and maintain the legitimate government in exile, as part of the Allies. Swedish authorities accepted the refugees and ensured their safety once they had crossed the border, but did little to facilitate their escape. The latter was so annoying to the occupying German authorities that it became illegal to stand on a bus if seats were available. "Area command Finnmark" consisting of 12 men. Some nonetheless stayed behind to await the departure of the Germans: it was estimated that 23,000–25,000 people remained in East-Finnmark by the end of November, they hid in the wilderness until the Germans had left. More than 2,000 of them, both … By the autumn of 1939 there was an increasing sense of urgency because of its long western coastline facing access routes into the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean that Norway had to prepare, not only to protect its neutrality, but indeed to fight for its freedom and independence. Of these, 9,000 were consigned to prison camps outside Norway, including Stutthof concentration camp.. Milorg started out as a small sabotage unit and ended up building a full military force in time for the liberation. The first wave of German attackers counted only about 10,000 men. The surprise, and the lack of preparedness of Norway for a large-scale invasion of this kind, gave the German forces their initial success. The Germans attempted to stifle Resistance activities and executed several innocent Norwegian men, women, and children in retaliation after any Resistance act. At the beginning of the occupation, there were at least 2,173 Jews in Norway. No. Get it in front of 160+ million buyers. "Vi gir oss ikke frivillig, kampen er allerede i gang", replied Koht. :16 Hence, on the first day of invasion, Quisling, using his own initiative, burst into the NRK studios in Oslo on 9 April and made a nationwide broadcast at 7:30 pm declaring himself prime minister and ordering all resistance halted at once. The plan was for them to reach Lakselv in Norway, 160 mi (260 km) west, by 15 November. The Nazis set up border patrols to stop these flights across the very long border, but locals who knew the woods found ways to bypass them. From prelude, through invasion and resistance, to liberation and peace, the museum gives a thorough view of important events and themes using sound, pictures, texts, … In early October 1944, some 53,000 men of the German 19th Mountain Corps were still 45 mi (72 km) inside Russia along the Litsa River and the neck of the Rybachy Peninsula. Norwegian men that had joined the SS faced much persecution after the War and were labeled as traitors. Allied forces had several successes in Northern Norway, but were redirected for the futile defense of France. A planned Norwegian administration was set up overnight. Throughout the war, some 118 ships served the Royal Norwegian Navy, of which 58 were in active service at the end of the war. Shortly afterward, British troops landed at Namsos and Åndalsnes, to attack Trondheim from the north and from the south, respectively. Director: Arne Skouen | Stars: Jack Fjeldstad, Henny Moan, Alf Malland, Joachim Holst-Jensen. It also pertains to French Resistance fighters. Quisling was consequently re-instituted as head of state on 20 February 1942, although Terboven retained the sole means to use violence as a political tool, which he did on several occasions (e.g. Only one escapes on foot, and a fierce hunt through the ice desert has begun. The Blücher, which carried the main forces to occupy the capital, was sunk in the Oslofjord on the first day of the invasion. red garments, e.g. The Norwegian Resistance to the Germans was active from the moment the Germans landed in the country. :58 At the same time, a single parachute battalion took the Oslo and Stavanger airfields, and 800 operational aircraft overwhelmed the Norwegian population. It took several forms: The Norwegian government of Prime Minister Johan Nygaardsvold, with the exception of foreign minister Halvdan Koht and minister of defense Birger Ljungberg, was largely caught by surprise when it became apparent in the early hours of April 9, 1940 that Nazi Germany had launched an invasion of Norway. At 21:10 on the same day, the German High Command ordered Böhme to follow the capitulation plans, and he made a radio broadcast at 22:00 in which he declared that German forces in Norway would obey orders. … This remained the situation as 1944 slipped into 1945. The secret room, now a museum, of the Theta Group of the Resistance Movement during the occupation of Norway 1940 to 1945. A small number of JG 5's surviving aircraft have been recently restored to flying condition as warbird aircraft with various organizations that fly them in airshow events, and a few others that served with JG 5 are also in the process of being restored to flying condition, early in the 21st century. The rest participated in liberation of the rest of Norway after the German surrender in May 1945. The answer to this question, which is emblazoned on the cover of a new book by journalist Marte Michelet, threatens to shatter Norway's greatest myth: the heroism of the resistance that fought the Nazis and saved half the country’s Jews during World War II. The economic consequences of the German occupation were severe. The German 6th Mountain Division, acting as rear-guard, slowly withdrew up the main road along the coast (known as Riksvei 50, now called the E6) until reaching Tanafjord, some 70 mi (110 km) north-west of Kirkenes, which they reached on 6 November. On his return to Norway, General Böhme issued a secret directive to his commanders in which he ordered "unconditional military obedience" and "iron discipline". The purpose of this was twofold: it counteracted Nazi propaganda, and it maintained nationalistic, anti-German feelings in the population at large. The history of the resistance movement may have been glorified excessively, but it has also provided Norwegian military and political leaders with durable role models. Following the surrender, detachments of regular Norwegian and Allied troops were sent to Norway, which included 13,000 Norwegians trained in Sweden and 30,000 Britons and Americans. It was hoped that this would divert German forces away from France, and open a war front in south Sweden. Quisling believed that by ensuring economic stability and mediating between the Norwegian civilian society and the German occupiers, his party would gradually win the trust and confidence of the Norwegian population. Holding out against five times as many British and French troops, they were close to rebellion before finally slipping out from Narvik on 28 May. Norwegian Resistance sinks troopship with timed mines. Over time, an organized armed resistance movement, known as Milorg and numbering some 40,000 armed men at the end of the war, was formed under a largely unified command, something which greatly facilitated the transfer of power in May 1945. Reinforcements arrived from the Norwegian Rikspoliti based in Sweden as well as convoys from Britain. Between 1940 and 1945, thousands of Norwegians fought in Norway's Resistance movement against the occupying Nazis. Germany and Colonies Military, War … However, the advance of the Soviet troops stopped and West-Finnmark and North-Troms became a no-man's land between the Soviet army and the German army. Although Norway did not have any major battles beyond those of the Norwegian Campaign, a number of military operations served to subvert the Nazi authorities and contribute to the larger war effort. The German World War II occupation of Norway began with the invasion of the neutral country (April 9, 1940) and lasted until the liberation following the German surrender (May 8, 1945). By war's end, 92,000 Norwegians were located abroad, including 46,000 in Sweden. In the north, German troops engaged in a bitter fight at the Battle of Narvik. "The 12th Man" (out now on Blu-Ray and Digital HD) tells the story of the resistance in Norway, one of the countries that we tend to forget that the Nazis invaded. A major storm on 7 April resulted in the British Navy failing to make material contact with the German shipping. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, however, was by that time convinced that some aggressive action ought to be taken; and Paul Reynaud, who succeeded Édouard Daladier as France’s premier on March 21, was of the same opinion. Nazi occupation of Norway during World War II, Lapland War, Soviet advance, and retreat of the German army, Exiled Norwegian troops liberate Finnmark, German capitulation and end of occupation. Asserting legitimacy of exiled Norwegian government, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Transit of German troops through Finland and Sweden, Flight of the Norwegian National Treasury, "The Man Nobody Knew: In Search of My Father, CIA Spymaster William Colby", http://firstrunfeatures.com/themannobodyknew/, Police units in Sweden: Norwegian resistance Page 1, http://mediabase1.uib.no/krigslex/o/o2.html#osvald-gruppen, "NOU 1998.12: Alta bataljon (aka "The Eitinger Report") - section 11.6.2: Sivorg", http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/hod/dok/NOUer/1998/NOU-1998-12/26/6/2.html?id=375562, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Norwegian_resistance_movement?oldid=4687673, The initial defense in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganized, but succeeded in allowing the government to escape capture, The more organized military defense and counter-attacks in parts of. Fighting continued in Northern Norway until 10 June, when the Norwegian 6th Division surrendered shortly after Allied forces had been evacuated against the background of looming defeat in France. Five days later, when the German army prepared to withdraw, only around 45,000 short tons (41,000 t) had been saved. $14.40. PLEASE DO NOT ANY ANY AND ALL WW2 FICTION. However most organizations opted for passive resistance. The exact number of those who took part is unknown, but they included civilians who worked secretly against the occupation as well as armed bands of partisans or guerrilla fighters. Among German-occupied territories in Western Europe, this made Norway the country to withstand the German invasion for the longest period of time – approximately two months. Allied forces attempted several counterattacks, but all failed. The rest of the refugees were effectively locked up in Sweden for the duration, except for a small number of officers, pilots or other specialists managing to obtain priority on the occasional plane leaving Sweden for Britain. Membership in the Nasjonal Samling did increase slightly in the first few years of the occupation, but never reached significant levels, and eroded towards the end of the war. One interesting fact was that two of its four leaders were young women, among them Anne-Sofie Østvedt. O.M. Gray and black market provided for flow of goods. Prior to the invasion, on 14 and 18 December 1939, Vidkun Quisling, the leader of Norway's fascist party, the Nasjonal Samling ("National Gathering"), had tried to persuade Adolf Hitler that he would form a government in support of occupying Germans. Joachim Ronneberg in 2015. On 26 April the Norwegian command sent out a message that Finnmark was free. Norway 1940 by F Kersaudy (St Martins Press, 1991) Norway 1940, The Forgotten Fiasco by J Kynoch (The Crowood Press, 2002) The Norwegian Campaign of 1940 by JL Moulton (Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1966) Throughout this period, Norway was continuously occupied by the Wehrmacht. SS and Police Leaders for Norway included Hans Hüttig as well as Rediess. There was also spirited defense at other locations, including Midtskogen, Hegra and Narvik but these were largely the result of improvised missions by isolated military units and irregular volunteers. Norway's Prime Minister Erna Solberg has issued an official government apology to Norwegian women who were mistreated over World War Two-era relationships with German soldiers. 28,750 were arrested, though most were released for lack of evidence. 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