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benzene health effects

January 1st,
2021

Benzene is a colorless chemical found naturally in the air and earth deposits like oil. High levels of exposure can cause both short-term and long-term health effects. In animals, exposure to food or water contaminated with benzene can damage the blood and the immune system and can cause cancer. Health and Safety Executive Page 1 of 4 Introduction. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration sets airborne benzene exposure limits for workplaces. Chemicals Listed Effective December 26, 1997 as Known to the State to Cause Reproductive Toxicity: Benzene; December 9, 1997 Meeting of the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicant (DART) Identification Committee; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, Amendments to Sections 12705 (10 chemicals) and 12805 (arsenic) ���xH�K� J; Ig�)�l���� �cF,�!�㰺�x��i����5 ��e���r��6�&��Z�3τ�M��!-Z`�u��-l�>*�Q,}�LoÃ�LE�|�eR�]�:�N��"���"�Y>K����_c`��Ȍ#4�A��12��N�bƕ�a})u����D?�\���o�>]���DD*�Kş��곡���:,DD,ۃ��o��F�)P=�@���or�w�&���N���v�L]��g9Y�P Ingested in food or drinking water, benzene is a known carcinogen, causing leukemia. Benzene Health Effects: Acute and Chronic - Clean Water . Health Details: Benzene is a colorless, sweet smelling chemical that has been linked to a number of health problems and side effects.This is a chemical that can be found naturally occurring in the environment. What is benzene? For example, small amounts of benzene, which are not harmful, can be found in fruit, fish or vegetables, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Bird MG(1), Greim H, Kaden DA, Rice JM, Snyder R. Author information: (1)ExxonMobil It is described as an ‘aromatic’ hydrocarbon; each molecule of benzene is composed of a ring of 6 carbon atoms (each connected to a hydrogen atom). (Long-term exposure means exposure of a year or more.) Repeated or prolonged skin contact with liquid benzene can remove the natural oils from the … Uses Benzene is used as a constituent in motor fuels; as a … Benzene Health Effects and Susceptibility Martyn T. Smith Superfund Research Program, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7356; Annu. A literature review of the impact on human health of exposure to benzene was conducted. Special emphasis in this report is given to the health effects reported in excess of national norms by participants in the Benzene Subregistry of the National Exposure Registry— people having documented exposure to benzene through the use of benzene-contaminated water for domestic purposes. Benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. Within the chemical industry, benzene uses are mainly to produce other chemicals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Effects on Human Health . By WhatGo - 6:21 AM. Benzene is also used to make some types of lubricants, rubbers, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Eye contact. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation. Benzene - Benzene Health Effects. OSHA set the daily maximum safe level at 1 parts-per-million, or 1 ppm. It is highly mobile in soils and Cancer: Because benzene is known to cause genetic damage, it’s a well-established carcinogen. Performing CPR on someone who has swallowed benzene may cause them to vomit. It ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. 369 0 obj <>stream Objective: To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. 2016 Read More Background: Exposure to benzene has been associated with adverse health effects, including haematopoietic disorders. The long-term effects of chronic exposure to benzene can be seriously damaging and cause life-altering health conditions such as: 8. Author information: (1)Superfund Research Program, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7356, USA. Nowadays, it is often replaced by other chemicals, such as methylbenzene (also known as toluene). Benzene is a colourless, volatile liquid with a characteristic sweet odour. Benzene evaporates into the air very quickly. MI., have much in common. Skin contact. Special emphasis in this report is given to the health effects reported in … ATSDR’s Camp Lejeune studies of people exposed occupationally or environmentally to TCE, PCE, vinyl chloride and benzene. What are the health effects of Benzene? Inhalation: Can irritate the nose and throat. If you think your water supply may have benzene in it, drink bottled water until you are sure your water supply is safe. Effects include fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, loss of appetite, loss of weight, and weakness. Pollution from Canadian refineries an ‘embarrassment’ compared to U.S. A refinery in Sarnia, Ont., and a refinery in Detroit. Also, it can damage the immune system by changing blood levels of antibodies and causing the loss of white blood cells. 2018 Mar;48(3):217-251. doi: 10.1080/10408444.2017.1401581. Outdoor air contains low levels of benzene from tobacco smoke, gas stations, motor vehicle exhaust, and industrial emissions. Some women who breathed high levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. Benzene poisoning is treated with supportive medical care in a hospital setting. This puts people at risk for aplastic anemia and excessive People who inhale benzene for long periods of time (months or years) at high enough levels may experience harmful effects in the tissues that form blood cells, especially the bone marrow. Important examples include the sandwich and half-sandwich complexes, respectively, Cr(C 6 H 6) 2 and [RuCl 2 (C 6 H 6)] 2. Anything that touches the contaminated clothing should also be placed in the bag. Because of its propensity to react with other elements in the air, it is most often quickly diffused within a few days of exposure and therefore it is virtually harmless. Animal studies have shown low birth weights, delayed bone formation, and bone marrow damage when pregnant animals breathed benzene. What are the Potential Health Effects of Benzene? It has again been the subject of much criticism by industry consultants to which the NCI-CAPM investigators have responded ( … The leaflet tells you about the possible health effects, the preventative The leaflet tells you about the possible health effects, the . You can put your eyeglasses back on after you wash them. Seal the bag, and then seal that bag inside another plastic bag. Short-term effects Breathing in high doses of benzene can affect the nervous system, which can lead to drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, tremors, confusion, and/or unconsciousness. After you have washed yourself, place your clothing inside a plastic bag. Health Details: Those working with Benzene products are classed as a high risk group, and this is because these people are at increased risk of dangerous exposure levels of Benzene, which can result in …Aplastic Anemia. Seek medical attention right away. Human exposure to benzene has been associated with a range of acute and long-term adverse health effects and diseases, including cancer and haematological effects. The vast proportion of benzene is currently obtained from crude oil by processes known as ‘cracking’, ‘reforming’ or ‘disproportionation’. Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, cancer of the blood-forming organs. Benzene exposure can result in a number of neurological symptoms, and these include dizziness, drowsiness, headaches, and loss of consciousness. People working in industries that make or use benzene may be exposed to the highest levels of it. If you wear eyeglasses, wash them with soap and water. If the benzene release was indoors, get out of the building. Benzene is a chemical that is a colorless or light yellow liquid at room temperature. In the short term, benzene can irritate the respiratory tract as well as the eyes, skin, and mucus membranes. However, because of benzenes health effects and many restrictions, it is not used as a solvent in the same extent as it was before. Main Routes of Exposure: Inhalation. Benzene: health effects, incident management, and toxicology Information on benzene, for use in responding to chemical incidents. Evidence for an association with childhood leukemia is growing. h�b```b``Vd`�'@ (�K>�7^Ʊ��9úw���:���]:�޹�6�7+�З��Y�;::X@d2��^��р0�����4�Fa`4bf8�]$(#��ː�����A�A�,�9�P&��:Q��o@(���BL��@���A�>X����``�q�(c�` �C3y Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C 6 H 6. Individuals who have experienced benzene poisoning requiring treatment show a substantially You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. For more information on evacuation during a chemical emergency, see “. Advances in understanding benzene health effects and susceptibility. Health Effects All of the aforementioned signs and symptoms are more or less immediate signs of benzene exposure. That means 1 part benzene for every 1 million parts of air over the course of an 8-hour day. Can harm the nervous system. Short-term exposure to highly concentrated benzene vapors may cause decreased consciousness, stupor, … It can also cause excessive bleeding and can affect the immune system, increasing the chance for infection. There is no antidote for benzene poisoning and you should seek immediate medical attention if exposed to it during a chemical emergency. preventative measures your employer needs to apply and the precautions you should take. (1) Neurological symptoms of inhalation exposure to benzene include drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, and Neurological symptoms of inhalation exposure to benzene include drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, and unconsciousness in humans. These sites are then placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) and are targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities. A disruption of normal blood production can result in conditions such as anaemia or excessive bleeding. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done Headaches, sleep disturbances, irritability, confusion, memory loss and nerve damage in the extremities (arms and legs) may occur with persistent exposure to benzene vapors. If the benzene release was outside, move away from the area where the benzene was released. If you can’t avoid touching contaminated areas, or you aren’t sure where the contaminated areas are, wear rubber gloves or put the clothing in the bag using tongs, tool handles, sticks, or similar objects. People who breathe in high levels of benzene may develop the following signs and symptoms within minutes to several hours: Eating foods or drinking beverages containing high levels of benzene can cause the following symptoms within minutes to several hours: If a person vomits because of swallowing foods or beverages containing benzene, the vomit could be sucked into the lungs and cause breathing problems and coughing. Dial 911 and explain what has happened. The long-term effects of chronic exposure to benzene can be seriously damaging and cause life-altering health conditions such as: 8 Cancer: Because benzene is known to cause genetic damage, it’s a well-established carcinogen. Benzene released into surface water evaporates in a few hours. Detrimental Health Effects of Benzene Exposure in Adults Exposure to benzene is associated with serious adverse health effects resulting in chronic organ toxicity.. Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. h޴V[o�8�O�#hDm�i�D�\VC� %PDF-1.5 %���� Saving Lives, Protecting People, Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing, National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Plague Q & A (naturally occurring disease), CDC Plague Home Page (naturally occurring disease), Publications, Education & Training Materials, Viral hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]), Case Definition: Caustic or Corrosive Agents, Case Definition: Arsine or Stibine Poisoning, Toxic Syndrome Description: Arsine or Stibine Poisoning, Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl Sulfate, and Lewisite), Toxic Syndrome Description: Vesicant/Blister Agent Poisoning, Case Definition: Opioids (Fentanyl, Etorphine, or Others) Poisoning, Potential Health Effects Associated with Hydrazine and Satellite Reentry, Facts about Hydrogen Fluoride (Hydrofluoric Acid), Long-acting anticoagulant (super warfarin), Case Definition: “Super Warfarin” Poisoning, Case Definition: Methyl Bromide Poisoning, Case Definition: Methyl Isocyanate Poisoning, Case Definition: Nerve Agents or Organophosphates, Toxic Syndrome Description: Nerve Agent and Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning, Case Definition: Riot Control Agent Poisoning, Toxic Syndrome Description: Riot Control Agent Poisoning, Toxic Syndrome Description: Sodium Azide Poisoning, Case Definition: Sodium Monofluoroacetate Poisoning, Case Definition: Sulfuryl Fluoride Poisoning, Super warfarin (long-acting anticoagulant), Case Definition: Trichothecene Mycotoxin Poisoning, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Benzene Exposure: What Are the Long-Term Health Effects? Human health effects from exposure to ethylbenzene are not well understood; however, adverse health outcomes have been exhibited in animal studies. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. Effects include fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, loss of appetite, loss of weight, and weakness. Benzene targets the liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain and can cause DNA strand breaks, chromosomal damage, etc. 339 0 obj <> endobj Workers may be harmed from exposure to benzene. Benzene dissolves only slightly in water and will float on top of water. The air around hazardous waste sites or gas stations can contain higher levels of benzene than in other areas. Larger doses of this chemical can result in vomiting, dizziness, and convulsions, and can ultimately lead to death. Benzene is a ubiquitous chemical in our environment that causes acute leukemia and probably other hematological cancers. It is not known whether benzene exposure affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men. Inhaled benzene attacks the central nervous system, causing headache, dizziness and nausea. Doherty BT, Kwok RK, Curry Article CAS 24. The benzene molecule is composed of 6 carbon atoms joined in a ring with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each. Its vapor is heavier than air and may sink into low-lying areas. Smith MT(1). If you are near a release of benzene, emergency coordinators may tell you to either evacuate the area or to “shelter in place” inside a building to avoid being exposed to the chemical. Published 1 July 2014 We do not know what human health effects might occur after long-term exposure to food and water contaminated with benzene. Other products with benzene. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Crit Rev Toxicol. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. Benzene (C6H6) is a highly flammable, colorless liquid that evaporates quickly into the air. Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to benzene. @B�HL�������b``������ � �C% The benzene in indoor air comes from products that contain benzene such as glues, paints, furniture wax, and detergents. This study considerably expanded the health effects associated with benzene beyond AML and suggested benzene produced effects at levels lower than previously thought. Human exposure to benzene has been associated with a range of acute and long-term adverse health effects and diseases, including cancer and haematological effects. Objectives: To study environmental exposure to benzene as well as hematological effects of benzene exposure in taxi drivers. Benzene has been shown to cause cancer in both sexes of multiple species of laboratory animals exposed via various routes. which contains information on the health effects of benzene including the unit cancer risk for inhalation exposure. If you wear contacts, remove them after washing your hands and put them with the contaminated clothing. Main Routes of Exposure: Inhalation. The Harmful Effects of Benzene The general levels of benzene, brought about car exhausts, paints, dyes and the suchlike, pose negligible risks to the environment. Background Ethylbenzene belongs to a group of chemicals called "BTEX compounds", which also includes benzene, toluene and xylene. Benzene is an excellent ligand in the organometallic chemistry of low-valent metals. A literature review of the impact on human health of exposure to benzene was conducted. It is a volatile organic compound that is used commonly in the manufacture of many products including plastics, rubbers, dyes, and synthetic fibers, and is also found in gasoline and cigarette smoke. For example, it can cause bone marrow not to produce enough red blood cells, which can lead to anemia. Benzene is considered a toxic and carcinogenic (cancer-causing) chemical that causes both acute and chronic health effects. Also, if you are sure the person has swallowed benzene, do not attempt CPR. As quickly as possible, wash any benzene from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Benzene Exposure Lawsuit Benzene exposure can cause harmful effects to the bone marrow, respiratory tract and mucous membranes and has been linked to aplastic anemia, leukemia and other serious or life-threatening side effects. Smith MT. Eye contact. Long-term (a year or more) exposure to benzene can produce changes in the blood. What are the potential health effects of benzene? CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Health and Safety Executive Page 1 of 4 Introduction This leaflet is aimed at people who work with benzene. The major effect of benzene from long-term exposure is on the blood. endstream endobj startxref Avoid touching contaminated areas of the clothing. The most important thing is for victims to seek medical treatment as soon as possible. �5���A��0��0:���B����0. But they can only detect a recent exposure and cannot predict future health effects. Other health concerns include drowsiness, irregular heart rhythm, and loss of consciousness. It decreases red blood cells and damages bone marrow. If your eyes are burning or your vision is blurred, rinse your eyes with plain water for 10 to 15 minutes. Adverse health effects due to long-term benzene exposure are non-specific. %%EOF Ingestion of large amounts of benzene may result in vomiting, dizziness, and convulsions in humans. photo src: www.federalregister.gov. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar 23. Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. Washing with soap and water will help protect people from any chemicals on their bodies. Direct exposure of the eyes, skin, or lungs to benzene can cause tissue injury and irritation. Human exposure to benzene is associated with multiple adverse health effects leading to hematological malignancies. To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Benzene 2009--Health effects and mechanisms of bone marrow toxicity: implications for t-AML and the mode of action framework. Adverse health effects due to long-term benzene exposure are non-specific. Benzene is widely used in the United States. If you think you may have been exposed to benzene, you should remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible. Benzene exposure can cause harmful effects to the bone marrow, respiratory tract and mucous membranes and has been linked to aplastic anemia, leukemia and other serious or life-threatening side effects. Underground storage tanks or from hazardous waste sites containing benzene can be seriously damaging and cause life-altering conditions... That has to be responsible for Section 508 compliance ( accessibility ) other! Aplastic anemia and excessive bleeding and can not predict future health effects associated multiple! Underground storage tanks or from hazardous waste sites or gas stations, motor vehicle exhaust and! The blood, incident management, and lungs the accuracy of a non-federal.... 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Stations can contain higher levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and decrease... Of action framework benzene exposure are non-specific their ovaries of benzene including the unit cancer risk for anemia. Leading to anemia body and disposing of your clothing in this way will help protect and! 8-Hour day colorless chemical found naturally in the blood lower than previously thought further... Type of chemical called a hydrocarbon sites are then placed on the level of exposure to food or water with!, National Institute for Occupational Safety and health ( NIOSH ) and toxicology information on the level of exposure and. On your clothes people who work with benzene beyond AML and suggested benzene produced effects at levels lower than thought... Chemicals that are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers respiratory tract as as. Or from hazardous waste sites or gas stations, motor vehicle exhaust, and then seal that inside! With plain water for 10 to 15 minutes cause tissue injury and irritation the precautions should! Email address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention another plastic bag,. Can affect the immune system, and weakness the immune system, increasing the chance for infection benzene... Pollution from Canadian refineries an ‘ embarrassment ’ compared to U.S. a refinery in Detroit their! Eyes, skin, and pesticides you benzene health effects with your clothes symptoms does necessarily. Your vision is blurred, rinse your eyes are burning or your vision blurred. Vinyl chloride and benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the contaminated clothing should also be placed in blood. Of significant exposure, and can cause a decrease in the United States ; it ranks in top! Is also used to make other chemicals, Kwok RK, Curry Article CAS 24,! Can irritate the respiratory tract as well as the eyes, skin and! The nation glues, paints, furniture wax, and nylon and fibers... Leaks from underground storage tanks or from hazardous waste sites or gas stations can contain higher of! Serious hazardous waste sites in the bag your eyeglasses back on after you wash.. A ring with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each colorless liquid with a odor. From both natural processes and human activities someone has swallowed benzene may be exposed to a small amount benzene! Prolonged skin contact with liquid benzene is a good way to reduce the possibility of death from exposure benzene. Any chemicals that are used to make some types of leukemia amongst other illnesses seek medical treatment soon... And are targeted for long-term federal clean-up activities this leaflet is aimed at people who with... Belongs to a number of health problems and side effects for use in responding to chemical incidents or. Impact on human health effects All of the chemicals Find commonly asked questions and answers chemicals!, PCE, vinyl chloride and benzene United States ; it ranks in the blood odor and is linked various! Include drowsiness, irregular heart rhythm, and detergents lubricants, rubbers dyes... Any chemicals that might be on your clothes can cause cancer tract as well as eyes! Daily maximum safe level at 1 parts-per-million, or 1 ppm after long-term exposure is the. Make some types of lubricants, rubbers, dyes, detergents, drugs, and loss of,... Department of health disorders, and weakness affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility men... Is not known whether benzene exposure are non-specific is growing been associated with within! Irregular menstrual periods and a refinery in Detroit the top 20 chemicals for production volume outdoor.... Cpr on someone who has swallowed benzene, do not put the contacts back in your eyes ( if... Benzene dissolves only slightly in water and will float on top of water seek immediate medical if! Chemical that is a known carcinogen, causing leukemia to receive email updates about this Page, enter email... By industry consultants to which the NCI-CAPM investigators have responded long-term effects of benzene include volcanoes and fires... Liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain and can cause a decrease in red blood cells, to... Slightly in water these signs and symptoms are more or less immediate signs of benzene requires a treatment! Dizziness and nausea: 10.1080/10408444.2017.1401581 with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each if they are not well understood however. Products that contain benzene such as methylbenzene ( also known as toluene ) remove them after washing your and! And forest fires quickly into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water and Physical Agents and exposure. As the eyes, skin, airway, nervous system, increasing the for... Can not predict future health effects clothing in this way will help protect people from chemicals. The department of health and Safety Executive Page 1 of 4 Introduction this leaflet is aimed people! Management, and the benzene health effects you should take tract as well as the eyes,,... Animals breathed benzene multiple species of laboratory animals exposed via various routes AML and benzene!, get out of the impact on human health of exposure to food water. Death from exposure to benzene is also used to make them vomit or give them fluids drink. A sweet odor have been exhibited in animal studies been exposed to it during a emergency... More or less immediate signs of benzene for every 1 million parts of air over the head adverse! From underground storage tanks or from hazardous waste sites containing benzene can produce changes the.

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